Regarding sound training methods and the science behind it, which has been discussed a lot lately: I can honestly say that after 30 years of involvement in long distance running as an athlete and a (sort of) coach, I cannot tell anyone "exactly" how he or she should train.
I only know what worked for me and my contemporaries; I can offer broad guidelines based on that experience, giving young runner a starting point to work out what will be best for him or her.
I have read books by David Costill, Jack Daniels, and Peter Pfitzinger/Scott Douglas. Very interesting. I highly recommend them, but contrast them with books by Arthur Lydiard and some of the great biographies - Peter Snell, Murray Halberg, Ron Hill, Ron Clarke, Clarence DeMar, and even Bill Rodgers and Frank Shorter. The latter provide inspiration and methodology. While reading them you want to head out for a run.
Everything we need to know about training was discovered many years ago through the ultimate science: trial and error. The exercise physiologists merely explain (perhaps correctly, perhaps not) why they think these methods work, and many write books suggesting they themselves invented the best methods.
When you begin to believe, that is when you will be on the right track to try and accomplish whatever you have set out to do. My advice is to start with Lydiard for some sound training methods, followed by the "Horatio Alger"-type biographies for inspiration.